Journal of Business, Economics and Management Research
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Artwork


Image Manipulation

Authors are permitted to manipulate images for the purpose of clarity only. Manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be regarded as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.


Electronic Artwork

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.

  • Save text in illustrations as “graphics” or embed the fonts used if your application provides that option.

  • Number illustrations according to their sequence in the text.

  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.

  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.

  • Size your illustrations close to the desired dimensions in the published version.

  • Submit each illustration as a separate file.


Image Formats

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply the file “as is” in the native document format. For any application other than Microsoft Office which is used for creating artwork, once your electronic artwork is finalized please click “Save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones and line/halftone combinations):


  • EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings; embed the fonts or save the text as “graphics”.

  • TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones); keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.

  • TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings; keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.

  • TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale); keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.


Please do not:

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g. GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;

  • Supply files that are too low in resolution;

  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.